CNC engraving machine working principle and system classification

Posted by Haicheng Zhu on

Working principle:

The CNC engraving machine is composed of three parts: computer, machine controller and machine. It is designed and typeset by special engraving software configured in the computer, the design and typesetting information is automatically transmitted to the machine controller by the computer, then the controller converts the information into a signal with power (pulse train) which can drive stepping motor or a servo motor, so it controls the engraving machine to generate the engraving path of the three axis of X, Y and Z. At the same time, the high-speed turning spindle on the engraving machine can engrave various plane or three-dimensional relief patterns and characters designed in the computer by cutting the machining materials fixed on the main table by the tools selected according to the processing material, to achieve automatic engraving work.

System classification

1. Stepper driver + stepper motor 

The stepper system is currently the most widely used and popular drive system in the market, which is a three-phase hybrid stepper motor, accounting for more than 90% of the market share,because of its cheap price. However, the defects are also obvious, such as resonance, noise, torque decreases when speed increases, long-term work is easy to lose steps, motor temperature rise too high etc.

2. Hybrid servo driver + motor

Hybrid servo has not been widely used in China. There are many reasons for this. There are not many manufacturers of hybrid servos in foreign countries, and the price has no advantage compared with AC servos. It can only be used in some special industries. Improvements include: improved high speed performance, reduced heat generation, and reduced resonance.

3. AC servo driver + AC servo motor

The use of AC servo in the engraving machine is still relatively small. The main reason is that the price is relatively high. In addition, the application of AC servo has certain requirements for the machine structure, electrical appliance, control system and transmission system, just like the principle of wooden barrel, the shortest board determines the amount of water in the barrel, so AC servos are generally used in high-end machine models. AC servo has: fast response, large torque, high speed, high precision, less heat, long-term work and complete alarm system. Disadvantages: Different equipment should use different servo parameters, which requires a high level of technical engineers to adjust the parameters.

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